Right Dose Information Center

Practical Resources for Right Dose Management

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Find a variety of materials for further reading:


Siemens angiography and MediGuideTM Technology facilitate significant dose reduction during Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)

November 2014

The study showed reductions fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure of up to 90% when compared to conventional (exclusively fluoroscopy-guided) CRT implantations. There were no negative consequences on procedural efficacy and no complications.

PRIME: Software-based scatter correction enabling gridless digital mammography
By Dejan Danilovic, PhD, and Astrid Hamann

Lowering dose without compromise in image quality

Publication of "Full-field digital mammography with gridless acquisition and software-based scatter correction: Investigation of dose savings and image quality"1

Reprint of the publication in “Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging 2013”
Physics of Medical Imaging, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA, vol. 8668, pp. 86685Y, (2013), doi:10.1117/12.2007490:
Fieselmann, A., Fischer, D., Hilal, G., Dennerlein, F., Mertelmeier, T., and Uhlenbrock, D.,
„Full-field digital mammography with grid-less acquisition and software-based scatter correction: Investigation of dose saving and image quality”

Mean glandular dose survey of 2D mammograms acquired with the Siemens Mammomat Inspiration system

Hilde Bosmans, Koen Michielsen, Kim Lemmens, Jurgen Jacobs
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Leuven
Leuven, Belgium


SAFIRE - Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction
Katherine Grant, PhD, and Rainer Raupach, PhD

Recent interest in iterative reconstruction techniques has skyrocketed due to increased focus on CT dose reduction over the past couple of years. Iterative Reconstruction (IR) is an alternative to the more common/traditional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) approach to image creation.

Article / Magazines

“Now I See the Stent at All Times”
AXIOM Innovations November 2014

Tweeting Dose
AXIOM Innovations August 2014

Low-dose Imaging Is Becoming a Clinical Reality
AXIOM Innovations August 2014

Artis Q & Artis Q.zen - Pushing the Frontiers of Interventional Imaging

AXIOM Innovations, December 2012

Raising the Bar, Teamwork proves essential to lowering dose and improving patient outcomes

AXIOM Innovations, June 2012

A Gift Pack - Lower Dose, Higher Image Quality
Interview with Prof. Dr. Çekirge, Hacettepe University Ankara, Turkey

AXIOM Innovations, June 2012

Navigating the Heart - Integrated MediGuide Technology helps navigation and saves dose

AXIOM Innovations, June 2012

Patient CARE and Dose Saving; Interview with Dr. Berlis, Klinikum Augsburg in Germany

AXIOM Innovations, June 2012

Cover Story: Low Dose - High Principles. Saving Dose with CARE and syngo DynaCT

AXIOM Innovations, Nov. 2011

Precise Imaging Far Beyond the Basics - CLEAR Technology Boosts Image Quality

AXIOM Innovations, June 2011

Low-Dose Interventional Imaging - Stony Brook Medical Center Takes CARE

AXIOM Innovations, June 2011

Dose in x-ray computed tomography
Kalender WA. Phys Med Biol. 2014;59(3):R129-R150.

Radiation dose in x-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a topic of high interest due to the increasing numbers of CT examinations performed worldwide. This review aims to present an overview of current concepts for both scanner output metrics and for patient dosimetry and will comment on their strengths and weaknesses. 

"How I Do It: Managing Radiation Dose in CT"
William W. Mayo-Smith, MD, Amy K. Hara, MD, Mahadevappa Mahesh, MS, PhD, Dushyant V. Sahani, MD, William Pavlicek, PhD
Radiology: Volume 273: Number 3—December 2014, radiology.rsna.org

After reading the article and taking the test, the reader will be able to: explain units that measure CT output, differentiate CT output from patient dose, list CT parameters that can be modified to decrease CT output and patient dose, demonstrate the difference between noise reduction iterative reconstruction algorithms and dose, demonstrate the effect of section collimation on image noise.

SOMATOM Sessions Online - Answers for life in Computed Tomography

Browse through the low dose category in the SOMATOM Sessions Online and find articles, news and case studies.

Image quality of ultra-low radiation exposure coronary CT angiography with an effective dose <0.1 mSv using high-pitch spiral acquisition and raw data-based iterative reconstruction.
Schuhbaeck A, Achenbach S, Layritz C, Eisentopf J, Hecker F, Pflederer T, Gauss S, Rixe J, Kalender W, Daniel WG, Lell M, Ropers D.
Eur Radiol. 2013 Mar;23(3):597-606. doi: 10.1007/s00330-012-2656-2. Epub 2012 Sep 16.

Authors evaluated the potential of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition with low tube voltage and current in combination with iterative reconstruction to achieve coronary CT angiography with sufficient image quality at an effective dose below 0.1 mSv.

Controlling Radiation Dose with Next-generation PET•CT
Concerns about radiation exposure are front and center in medical imaging.
Fortunately, Siemens’ continuous efforts to reduce exposure and corresponding technological advances are helping to reduce radiation doses to patients undergoing PET•CT exams, while enabling excellent image quality.
By Evan Godt, Summer 2012

Case Studies

Imazato Heart Clinic, Japan
Outstanding dose reduction with Optimize CARE CT for heart scans

"At our clinic, we were able to reduce radiation by over 50 percent in heart exams. Other facilities could also reduce radiation by improving their knowledge of dose reduction and learn to better utilize the dose reduction innovations like SAFIRE1 and CARE kV2 that are available on their scanners. I highly recommend it."

Mr. Yuji Ueda, Head of the Clinical Technology Department

Imazato Heart Clinic, Osaka City, Japan


Ultralow-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Pulmonary Nodule Detection: First Performance Evaluation of Single Energy Scanning With Spectral Shaping.
Gordic S1, Morsbach F, Schmidt B, Allmendinger T, Flohr T, Husarik D, Baumueller S, Raupach R, Stolzmann P, Leschka S, Frauenfelder T, Alkadhi H.; 2014 Mar 4.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity of ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomography (CT) with tin filtration for spectral shaping and iterative reconstructions for the detection of pulmonary nodules in a phantom setting.

Individualization of Abdominopelvic CT Protocols With Lower Tube Voltage to Reduce IV Contrast Dose or Radiation Dose
David M. Hough, Lifeng Yu, Maria M. Shiung, Rickey E. Carter, Jennifer R. Geske, Shuai Leng, Jeff L. Fidler, James E. Huprich, D. Y. Jondal, Cynthia H. McCollough and Joel G. Fletcher
July 2013, Volume 201, Number 1

The purpose of this study was to validate an individualized approach to contrast-enhanced body CT using size-specific tube potential selection to reduce either IV contrast or radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality.

Carotid CTA: Radiation Exposure and Image Quality with the Use of Attenuation-Based, Automated Kilovolt Selection
A. Eller, W. Wuest, M. Kramer, M. May, A. Schmid, M. Uder, and M.M. Lell
Published August 1, 2013 as 10.3174/ajnr.A3659

CTA is considered the imaging modality of choice in evaluating the supraaortic vessels in many institutions, but radiation exposure remains a matter of concern. The objective of the study was to evaluate a fully automated, attenuationbased kilovolt selection algorithm in carotid CTA in respect to radiation dose and image quality compared with a standard 120-kV protocol.

Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage in CT: Benefits of Sinogram-Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction Techniques
B. Bodelle, E. Klein, N.N.N. Naguib, R.W. Bauer, J.M. Kerl, F. Al-Butmeh, J.L. Wichmann, H. Ackermann, T. Lehnert, T.J. Vogl and B. Schulz
Published online before print November 21, 2013, doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3801; AJNR 2013

Acute intracranial hemorrhage represents a severe and time critical pathology that requires precise and quick diagnosis, mainly by performing a CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare image quality and intracranial hemorrhage conspicuity in brain CT with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction and filtered back-projection reconstruction techniques at standard (340 mAs) and low-dose tube current levels (260 mAs).

Iterative Reconstructions versus Filtered Back-Projection for Urinary Stone Detection in Low-Dose CT
Anna Winklehner, MD, Iris Blume, MD, Sebastian Winklhofer, MD, Daniel Eberli, MD, PhD, Ralph Gnannt, MD, Thomas Frauenfelder, MD, Hatem Alkadhi, MD, MPH, EBCR
Volume 20, Issue 11 , Pages 1429-1435, November 2013

To evaluate prospectively, in patients with suspected or known urinary stone disease, the image quality and diagnostic confidence of nonenhanced abdominal low-dose computed tomography (CT) with iterative reconstruction (IR) compared to filtered back-projection (FBP).

Effects of Automated Kilovoltage Selection Technology on Contrast-enhanced Pediatric CT and CT Angiography

Marilyn J. Siegel, MD, , Charles Hildebolt, DDS, PhD, and , David Bradley, BS
August 2013, Volume 268, Issue 2

To assess effects of an automated kilovoltage selection tool on radiation dose, tube current, and image quality in pediatric contrast material–enhanced thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography.

Addressing the Unique Challenges of Pediatric Imaging. An Evaluation of Digital Fluoroscopy and Radiography Applications for Children


Dual Source CT Experts Community
Reducing radiation dose is a key topic in CT imaging. Dual source CT enables shorter examination times entailing lower radiation exposure. Discuss hot topics or ask the expert your specific question about Dual Source CT (DSCT) and Flash scanning in practice.

Right Dose Community
The “Right Dose Community” user group serves as an open discussion space and peer-to-peer knowledge exchange. The group is dedicated to healthcare professionals who use Siemens scanning equipment that emits medical radiation dose.

Image Wisely - Radiation Safety in Adult Medical Imaging

Image Wisely offers resources and information to radiologists, medical physicists, other imaging practitioners, and patients. 

Right Dose Image Contest 2013
The Best CT Images 2013

PRIME Presenter
Experience the reference in low dose mammography.

PRIME Technology1 allows for saving dose up to 30% with uncompromised image quality by combining a Gridless Acquisition with Progressive Reconstruction (16 clinical cases).


How to reduce dose in Pediatric CT imaging
As children are more sensitive to radiation than adults, it is of utmost importance to pay attention when imaging pediatric patients. This flyer includes tips and tricks guiding from patient preparation to protocol selection and the application of features such as CARE Dose4D.
This flyer applies to software versions syngo CT 2010 and earlier.

How to reduce dose in Cardio CT - SOMATOM Definition AS Family, syngo CT 2011A 
The scanners of the SOMATOM Definition AS Family offer various scan modes to match the clinical requirements for different clinical situations in Cardio CT.
The flyer includes information about the appropriate scan mode and advice as to how reconstruction parameters should be chosen.

How to reduce dose in Cardio CT
SOMATOM Definition Flash, syngo CT 2011B
Coronary CT Angiography is one of the more challenging CT acquisitions in your daily practice. With the tips and tricks provided in this flyer, you will be prepared to decide on the scan mode and reconstruction settings. The unique technology of the Flash Spiral is covered, as are the other scan modes for Cardio CT on the SOMATOM Definition Flash.

How to scan with CARE Dose4D
syngo CT 2011

CARE Dose4D adjusts the tube current automatically for the individual patient and examination. This flyer provides information about the settings and how they can be customized to match the clinical needs of the institution based on the technology implemented in syngo CT 2011.

How to scan with CARE kV
syngo CT 2011
CARE kV makes automated tube voltage adjustment possible, and CARE Child even allows for scanning with 70 kV. This flyer includes information about the prerequisites and workflow, and information about the technology of tube voltage adaption.

How to scan children with FAST CARE
syngo CT 2011
The new dose management features will be especially beneficial to the youngest patients due to their increased sensitivity to radiation dosage. To meet special requirements in pediatric CT imaging, this flyer summarizes tips and tricks for scanning children with FAST CARE.

What Does Your CT Dose Say About Your Facility?
Even before its patients began asking about dose, Zwanger-Pesiri started to explore how it couldfurther reduce dose in CT.


Protect the patient
Reducing radiation dose in the interventional lab. Recommendations for your daily routine.

Protect the operator
Reducing radiation dose in the interventional lab. Recommendations for your daily routine.

Related Products, Services & Resources

1Not commercially available in all countries. Due to regulatory reasons the future availability cannot be guaranteed. Please contact your local Siemens organization for further details.

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